The First Generation

I want to look at something I found that is just a bit unusual. I’ll be the first to admit that I looked at the initial generation of black players to make the Major Leagues as guys whose careers are incomplete. After all, so my argument went, they lost so much time to segregation that we only have a part of their career to study. Turns out that argument is only partially true. In the case of older players like Sam Jethroe or Luke Easter or Satchel Paige or Willard Brown it’s correct. But there is another group of first generation blacks who don’t fit at all into that argument. In what you’re about to read, do not forget that this is a  very small sample of players and is nothing like a definitive look at all the players of the era.

Among the players who first integrated the Major Leagues were a number of younger up and coming players. I looked at some of them with an eye toward determining if what we had was something like a full career. I took the players who integrated their teams prior to 1951 then eliminated those guys like Jethroe and the others mentioned above who I knew had established Negro League careers of long duration. I concentrated on their ages. There was some differences in the posted age of various players so I went with Baseball-Reference.com’s age (right or wrong, it is at least a starting point). By concentrating on the Rookies of the Year and a handful of other players who came quickly to mind I put together the following list of first generation players who were relatively young (At my age “young” is always relative) and spent time in the Negro Leagues before 1951: 20-Willie Mays; 21-Hank Thompson; 23-Larry Doby, Minnie Minoso,  Don Newcombe; 24-Jim Gilliam; 26-Roy Campanella; 28-Joe Black, Jackie Robinson; and 30-Monte Irvin. They average 24.6 years of age when they arrive in the Major Leagues, and if you leave out Irvin, the oldest, it’s 24.0. Now let’s be honest here. Obviously under a normal career progression, guys like Irvin are already passed their prime and both Black and Robinson are right in the heart of theirs. And Campanella is also different in that he’d been playing Negro League ball since age 16. So even within this group, a number have lost significant time to Negro League play, just not all. This list also leaves out players like Hank Aaron and Ernie Banks who come up later and, at least to me, aren’t quite members of that first generation of black Major Leaguers.

So I wondered was 24.6 “old” for a rookie in the 1947-1955 era? For comparison I took a like number of white players. I went to the Rookie of the Year list and took the white players from 1948 through 1955 trying to come up with 10 names, two of which were pitchers. Here’s the list: 21-Harvey Kuenn; 22-Roy Sievers, Herb Score; 23-Gil McDougald; 24-Bill Virdon, Wally Moon, Bob Grim; 25-Harry Byrd; 26-Alvin Dark, Walt Dropo.  The average age here is 23.8, or less than one year difference. And if you leave out Dropo (who with Dark is the oldest), you get 23.4.

The point of all this is not to compare the black players with the white players, although you can if you want. The point is that there is a group of Negro League players who arrive in the Major Leagues at about the same age as white counterparts so we may look at their Major League careers as being as substantially complete as those white counterparts. That doesn’t mean that special circumstances might have changed the age the player arrived in the Major Leagues, only that both groups arrive at roughly the same age. 

Of the black list above only Irvin and Joe Black are older than the oldest of the white players. Campanella is the same age as the oldest white player. As mentioned above, this doesn’t mean that the careers should be directly compared; only that the black players, like the white players, have careers that are substantially complete. It does mean that should you ask if Jim Gilliam was as good as Wally Moon (both were 24 when they arrived in the Majors), you can look over their career stats, and then make a judgement without wondering how much did Gilliam lose to his Negro League career. I think that’s worth noting. What you decide about either Gilliam and Moon is up to you.

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4 Responses to “The First Generation”

  1. William Miller Says:

    Nice way to set up an analytical framework for discussion. After having read your last post, I was impressed by how many really good years Larry Doby had in the Majors.
    To me, the bottom line is, for many years white baseball fans missed out on an opportunity to watch many fine black ball players. That is self-evident. It almost seems beside the point what the relative talent-level of the Negro Leagues as a whole was. Unquestionably, over a half-century, lots of players we probably haven’t even heard of would have been stars in the Majors, if given a chance. Now, we’ll never know.
    Great work, Bill

  2. The Baseball Idiot Says:

    I hate to be that guy, but I feel I need to. Minus Doby, all of the guys you listed were National Leaguers. I think it’s a great point for that league, but might not be valid for the American League.

    They weren’t quick to integrate, so there might have been Negro Leaguers sitting in the minors who still weren’t getting a chance. In that instance, particularly with the Red Sox, segregation was still hurting them.

    It might be worth looking at it from a breakdown of league perspective, and seeing if the AL was still holding guys back.

    Just a thought.

    • verdun2 Says:

      A couple of quick responses to your comment.
      1. The NL was much quicker to integrate. Also, for some reason they seemed to find better quality black players earlier. The AL went with a lot of guys who were older (Easter, Paige, etc) or who ended up as busts. The first black AL RoY is Tony Oliva and the first black AL MVP is Elston Howard, both in the mid-1960s. So you’re right that the NL is overrepresented here, but I wanted guys who had both quality careers and spent time in the Negro Leagues in the late 1940s and very early 1950s rather than later. That forced me almost totally into the NL.
      2. My purpose was to look at the notion, which I also had, that all the black guys who got to the Majors from the Negro Leagues were guys who’d spent so much time there that they lost significant parts of their careers. I found that in some cases that was true, but in some is wasn’t.
      3. I wish I could tell you why the NL got the jump on the quality Negro League players over the AL (and that will be true deep into the 1950s). I can’t. I can guess that they had better scouts, more close contacts in the black community, and that racism was greater in the AL. But I frankly don’t know which, if any, is true.
      v

  3. Vinnie Says:

    Second to everything Bill said.
    What I believe your study will show is that the talent is spread equally among all races. You’ll find the handful of super stars, and all in between, right down to your career organizational player. Race only plays a part when opportunities in other career fields are restricted. The more competitive the sport, the better all the talent is.
    You’ll also find that this influx of talent from around the world will mean the end of the four hundred hitter, for example. There’s just too much good to great pitching, and to a lesser extent, fielding skills to allow it.
    By the way. Are you including Bill Bruton in your research here?

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