Deceptive Advertising

New York Cubans logo

New York Cubans logo

From the beginnings of  segregation of the Major Leagues a certain amount of deception went on. There were those owners and managers who recognized there were black players who were well qualified to play in the big leagues. But custom determined they couldn’t join the party. Creative owners and managers, of which John McGraw was one of the best, tried to find ways around the color barrier. Black players were passed off as American Indians (tribe to be determined if it came up), as Mexicans, and most frequently as Cuban. It never quite worked, but it did lead to the Negro Leagues adopting “Cubans” as one of their more famous names.

There was a “Cubans” as early as 1899. By 1916 there were two of them (known unofficially as “Cubans (West)” and “Cubans (East)”. They spent time in the Negro National League (Cubans West) and the Eastern Colored League (Cubans East). But the Great Depression crippled the already struggling Negro Leagues and both teams folded in the early 1930s. By 1935 the economy was  better, the fans had at least a little more money, and the Negro Leagues were reviving. Alex Pompez (now in the Hall of Fame),  former owner of the Cubans East, resurrected the Cubans styling this team the “New York Cubans.” In 1935 they joined the Negro National League.

The “Cubans” name was always something of a misnomer. Although there were Cubans on the team, the roster generally included Black Americans and players from a number of Latin American countries. For example, Pedro Cepeda, father of Hall of Famer Orlando Cepeda, was a member of the team. The Cepeda’s were Puerto Rican. Tetelo Vargas was from the Dominican Republic.  Easily the best Cuban on the “Cubans” was Martin DiHigo who played the outfield, second base,  and pitched. So essentially if you were too dark for acceptance in the Major Leagues, and a good ball players, the Cubans would take you.

As a brief aside I should point out that Cubans were allowed into the Major Leagues. As early as the 1870s and 1880s, Esteban Bellan played in the National League. During the 1920s and 1930s such players as Bobby Estalella (father of the recent catcher), and Dolf Luque played Major League baseball. The difference was that each of these players was considered “light” enough to play while the players active with the Cubans were too “dark” to get a chance at the big leagues.

In 1935, the Cubans finished third of eight) in the NNL, six and a half games out of first. In 1936, the fell back to fourth (of six). In 1937 and 1938 they were inactive due to the legal troubles of their owner. By 1939 they were back in the NNL finishing last (of six). Between 1940 and 1942 they finished in the middle of the pack, finally taking second in 1943. In 1944 and 1945 they were back in the second division, finally getting back to second in 1946. They broke through in 1947, winning their only NNL pennant by seven and a half games.

The 1947 pennant winners included 40-year-old Luis Tiant (father of the 1960 and 1970 American League pitcher) who went 10-0 on the mound with Lino Dinoso and Pat Scantlebury as the other primary pitchers. Both Tiant and Dinoso were Cubans, Scantlebury was born in the Panama Canal Zone. Pedro Pages, Claro Duany, and Cleveland Clark were the outfield, with Lorenzo Cabrera, Rabbit Martinez, Silvio Garcia, and Minnie Minoso holding down the infield from first around to third. The catching duties were divided between Ray Noble and Louis Louden. Jose Maria Fernandez managed the team. They squared off against the Cleveland Buckeyes in the best of  seven Negro World Series. With game one ending in a tie, they lost game two then came back to win four in a row, thus giving them their only Negro World Series title.

It was the high point for the Cubans. In 1948 they finished second and at the end of the year the NNL folded. the Negro American League took in some of the NNL teams, including the Cubans. They finished fourth (of five)  in the NAL  Eastern Division (the NAL went to two divisions in 1949) in both 1949 and 1950. That was all for the team. It ceased playing after the 1950 season, a victim to lost revenue, lost fans, and the integration of the Major Leagues.

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3 Responses to “Deceptive Advertising”

  1. Glen Russell Slater Says:

    Interesting. The whole color hangup was sick.

    Excellently researched, V.

    And thanks for bringing up the man who I think is being forgotten about, who richly deserves to be in the Hall of Fame, and that is Minnie Minoso.

    I sure wish that I got to see him play. (and not just as the “gimmick” player that Bill Veeck had pinch-hitting on the White Sox in the 1970s and again in the 1980s.) He was, from everything I’ve read about him, a dynamic and exciting player.

    And looking at his statistics, even if he was the dullest player in history, I cannot even FATHOM why the voters ignore him.

    I truly do hope that Minoso lives to see this happen. He deserves to be in there NOW, while he’s living, and not as a “sympathy” inductee.

    How do you feel about Minoso in terms of his being in the Hall of Fame, V?

    Glen

  2. William Miller Says:

    This is great work, V. Very interesting stuff. In retrospect, the whole idea of a color barrier was so patently absurd. You could be light-skinned enough to pass as a Cuban, and be allowed to play in the Majors. At the same time, very dark-skinned Cubans had to wait their turn.
    Worst part is, just go on some of the news websites, click on a story, then go to the Comments section. I think you know you’ll find nearly as many horses asses on the subject of race exist today as did back then. Or perhaps they’re just louder.
    In my opinion, Glen is right that Minoso should be in The Hall.
    Nice work,
    Bill

    • verdun2 Says:

      I’ve never been able to determine exactly where the line between “light” and “dark” was drawn.
      Agree with you on some of the idiot comments I read on news websites (both right and left).
      And agree with both you and Glen on Minnie for the Hall. He’s overdue.
      v

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