Posts Tagged ‘Marvin Williams’

The Crusader

February 2, 2011

Wendell Smith

Crusader is one of those words that’s really out of fashion today. It brings up all the images of religious zealotry and fanaticism that make people shy from it. But there is a place for crusading zeal. Wendell Smith knew where that place needed to be and he worked long and hard, with unquestioned zeal, to help accomplish the integration of American sport.

Born in Detroit in 1914, Wendell Smith graduated from West Virginia State College (a segregated university). He edited the sports page for the college newspaper, majored in journalism, and played baseball. After graduation he joined the Pittsburgh Courier the leading black newspaper in Pennsylvania in 1937. By 1938 he was sports editor. He waged a continuous campaign to integrate American sport, especially baseball.  Although individual sports like track and boxing could produce excellent black athletes like Jesse Owens and Joe Louis, team sport (outside a handful of universities) was a bastion of segregation in the era. Smith argued that if black Americans could excel as individuals, they could do equally well as members of a  professional team, something players like Jackie Robinson had proved in college.

With World War II still going on, Smith hit upon the idea of having a tryout of Negro League players. He reasoned that with many of the Major League stars off at war, the teams would need the best quality talent they could get in order to win. This would be especially true of teams that were not usually in pennant contention and contenders who were losing because their best players were gone. And if they didn’t, then it showed their racism to the world.  He managed to talk Tom Yawkey’s Boston Red Sox into holding a tryout on 16 April 1945 for three black players: Jackie Robinson, Sam Jethro, and Marvin Williams. The Red Sox evaluation was that they weren’t good enough. Robinson, of course went on to win the first Rookie of the Year Award and make the Hall of Fame. Jethro also won a Rookie of the Year Award. Turns out the BoSox were right about Williams (1 out of 3) and Smith was right about racism.

Undeterred, Smith continued to support integrating baseball as the sport that would gain the most instant credibility for black players. There is no evidence that he personally influenced Branch Rickey’s move to integrate the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1946-7, but Smith certainly supported the idea. His newspaper paid for Smith to accompany Robinson during both the 1946 minor league year and also during the 1947 season on team road trips. Until the arrival on Dan Bankhead in the 1947 season, Smith served as a sort of unofficial roommate and confidant of Robinson, especially in those towns where Robinson was not allowed to stay in the same hotels as the white players. His articles on the road trips are some of his best work.

In 1938 Smith applied for membership in the Baseball Writers Association of America. He was turned down. It wasn’t because he was black (Of course, it wasn’t. They just wouldn’t do that, would they?) but because his newspaper was not owned by a white person (Say what?). In 1948, the BBWAA changed its mind and Smith became its first black member. That made him the first black man who could vote for the Hall of Fame.

In the late 1940s, Smith moved to Chicago and began covering mostly boxing for a local newspaper. In 1964 he joined WGN and became the television station’s first black sports anchor. He continued to write a newspaper article or two while working on television. He died in 1972. In 1993 he was award the J.G. Taylor Spink Award for baseball writing (thus getting his name in the HofF) and in 1996 his wife donated his papers to the Hall of Fame, where they are available for research.

The above should tell you I really like Wendell Smith. He’s not the greatest writer to win the Spink Award (I think Grantland Rice is), but he wa very good. His style was somewhat folksy, but his ability to cut through the nonsense to get at what he wanted is excellent. He understood the value of confrontation (ala the Red Sox episode), but could also let his prose make his case for him (like the Robinson hotel stories did). I think it took much too long to get him the Spink Award and I think he deserves to move a step beyond that. I’d like to see his full enshrinement in the Hall of Fame, plaque and all. I know a lot of people will disagree with me. After all, the man didn’t play the game. But then neither did Ban Johnson, William Hulbert, Tom Yawkey, and a lot of other members of the Hall. For what he meant to both the sport and the country, I think he should be there.

This post allows me to begin a celebration of black history month in the US with a look at a black American writer. I intend to make a few more looks at the Negro Leagues and other aspects of black baseball off and on during the month. Hope you will enjoy them.

Can’t use ’em

January 3, 2010

I’m a huge fan of the old sportswriter Wendell Smith. If you get a chance to read any of his stuff, take the time. Being black, he was very concerned about the integration of baseball in the 1940s. He championed Jackie Robinson and he wrote eloquently. He also put his money where his mouth was.

On 16 April 1945, Smith managed to get the Boston Red Sox to have a tryout for 3 black players at Fenway Park. The idea was that in the war-ravaged major leagues, black players of quality could give a team an edge and that white owners would do anything to win. He’s supposed to have chosen Boston because it was the cradle of American liberty and of abolitionism. Don’t know that’s true, because Smith never said it, at least that I can find, but it sounds like Smith.

So who’d he choose to represent black baseball? He took 3 players: Jackie Robinson, Sam Jethroe, and Marvin Williams. If you know much about baseball history you know Robinson won both a Rookie of the Year award and the MVP and became a Hall of Famer. Jethroe was older, had a shorter career, but also won a Rookie of the Year award.  Williams was a Negro League second baseman/third baseman who never made it to the majors.

Again if you know much about baseball history you know that the Red Sox turned down all three players saying they couldn’t use them. Smith went back to Pittsburgh, Jethroe and Willams back to black baseball, and Robinson went on to glory. But what happened to the Red Sox in 1945?

Here’s the starting lineup for the Red Sox in 1945 (everyone who played more than 80 games): Catfish Metkovich at 1st (he led the team with 19 steals); Sketter Newsome at 2nd; Eddie Lake at short; Jack Tobin at 3rd; an outfield of John Lazor (who led the team in hitting at 310), Leon Culberson, and Bob Johnson (who led the team with 12 home runs); Bob Garbark as catcher; and Tom McBride a backup outfielder and first baseman who played 100 games and his 305. No other position player appeared in 80 games.

How’d they do? They finished 71-83 in 7th place (in an 8 team league) 17.5 games behind the pennant winning Tigers. So let’s see now, let me get this straight. The Sox couldn’t use a future Hall of Famer and a future Rookie of the Year (actually 2 of those) but could use Culberson  who hit 275 with 6 home runs, 45 RBIs, and 4 stolen bases in Jethroe’s normal position; Newsome who hit 290 with 1 home run, 48 RBIs, and 6 stolen bases in what was to become Robinson’s normal position; and Tobin who hit 252 with no home runs, 21 RBIs, and 2 stolen bases in what was Williams’ normal Negro League position. I guess that makes sense to somebody, just not me.

Despite some earlier posts on this site that might have led to other conclusions, I’m not a particular Red Sox fan. This kind of thing is part of the reason why. It would take Boston until 1959, 12 (count ’em 12) years after the Brooklyn Dodgers brought up Jackie Robinson, to finally integrate their Major League team. Between 1918 and 2004 the Red Sox never won a World Series. Part of the reason may have been the “Curse of the Bambino”, but there was certainly at least one other reason.